La IA que hará quebrar los casinos jugando póker

Científicos aseguran haber encontrado el famoso “eslabón perdido”
July 8, 2019

El póker requiere una habilidad que siempre ha parecido exclusiva de la inteligencia humana: la habilidad para hacer trampas. Para ganar, los jugadores deben analizar cómo juegan sus oponentes y luego engañarles para obtener sus fichas. Ese tipo de picardía es bastante natural para las personas. Ahora, por primera vez, un programa de inteligencia artificial (IA) ha demostrado habilidades similares con las que ha ganado a una mesa llena de jugadores profesionales.

Un equipo de la Universidad Carnegie Mellon (CMU, en EE. UU.) y Facebook usó una combinación de técnicas de inteligencia artificial para ganar y engañar a seis jugadores humanos en la modalidad Texas Hold’em sin límite. Cada uno de ellos había ganado previamente cerca de un millón de euros jugando al póker, como por ejemplo el jugador profesional que ostenta el récord de títulos ganados en el World Poker Tour, Darren Elias, y el ganador de seis títulos de la Serie Mundial de Póker, Chris “Jesus” Ferguson, quien también ha ganado a un bot de póker inferior.

La nueva IA, llamada Pluribus, jugó 5.000 manos contra estos jugadores y, en todas ellas, ganó más que sus oponentes. En otra prueba en la que participaron 13 jugadores en 10.000 manos, el algoritmo volvió a salir victorioso. Pluribus mostró algunas estrategias sorprendentes, como las apuestas de cara, o finalizar una ronda con call para comentar la siguiente apostando. También engañaba como un profesional experimentado.

El algoritmo tuvo tanto éxito que los investigadores decidieron no publicar su código por temor a que pudiera ser utilizado para espoliar a las compañías del póker online“Podría ser muy peligroso para la comunidad del póker“, asegura el investigador de Facebook y exalumno de la CMU que ayudó a desarrollar este algoritmo Noam Brown.

El jugador profesionales de póker Jason Les, quien jugó contra el algoritmo, cuenta: “Siempre se suele descubrir el punto débil del oponente, pero en este caso, no encontré ninguno. Esta IA es tan fuerte que fue imposible encontrar una debilidad para explotar o aprovechar“.

Les cree que no jugó mal contra la IA, pero que “básicamente tuvo suerte”, y destaca que la máquina descubrió su farol varias veces. También subraya que la IA le enseñó algunos trucos: “Algunas de las cosas que hizo la IA me dieron ideas sobre cómo jugar los multiway pots [multijugador]”.

Los juegos como el ajedrez y el go se han convertido en una forma estándar de medir el progreso de la inteligencia artificial (aunque cada juego abarca solo un aspecto limitado y reducido de lo que constituye la inteligencia humana). Pero los juegos conquistados hasta ahora por la IA principalmente solo implicaban a dos jugadores, y en la mayoría, los movimientos de un oponente son visibles. Las formas más populares del póker, en cambio, suponen una mesa de múltiples jugadores y muchas cartas ocultas.

Para el profesor de Carnegie Mellon que ayudó a desarrollar Pluribus Tuomas Sandholm“es alucinante”. El investigador cuenta: “Pensé que no estábamos ni cerca, solo hace un año que comencé a creer en ello”.

En 2017, Sandholm y Brown desarrollaron una IA capaz de jugar el póker a nivel superhumano cara a cara. Pero parecía que sería mucho más complejo (o incluso imposible) crear un programa capaz de vencer a varios jugadores. A diferencia de la versión del juego para dos oponentes, no está claro si la versión multijugador tiene una única estrategia óptima (lo que se conoce como el “equilibrio de Nash”).

Además, el año pasado, esta pareja desarrolló una técnica más eficiente para explorar las posibles permutaciones de cada carta repartida. Como no se puede analizar cada mano o cada estrategia posible de cada jugador, la nueva técnica reduce la búsqueda a un subconjunto manejable.

Hay que destacar que, mientras los algoritmos anteriores necesitaban un superordenador, Pluribus se ejecuta en un solo servidor. Los detalles de esta investigación, y el juego realizado contra los expertos en póker, acaba de publicarse en la revista Science. Brown, que ahora forma parte del grupo de investigación de inteligencia artificial de Facebook (FAIR), detalla: “Con seis jugadores, es mucho más complicado buscar el final del juego. El algoritmo [de búsqueda] es la clave”.

Este logro supone un hito importante para la inteligencia artificial. Un programa informático necesita algo más que simple computación bruta para ganar en el póker. También necesita la habilidad para tomar decisiones bajo circunstancias inciertas mediante los principios de la teoría de juegos.

Las técnicas utilizadas en el póker tienen muchos usos prácticos, desde la tarificación hasta la creación de rutas para coches autónomos a través de un tráfico intenso. Los algoritmos de estrategia también serían bastante útiles en contextos de defensa. De hecho, Sandholm tiene una empresa de consultoría llamada Strategy Robot que trabaja en proyectos de defensa. Pero subraya que el código usado para conquistar el póker no sería útil en esos contextos, porque está diseñado específicamente para este juego de cartas.

El profesor de la Universidad de Duke (EE. UU.) y especialista en inteligencia artificial y en la teoría de juegos Vincent Conitzer destaca que será importante ver si las técnicas empleadas se podrían aplicar a otros juegos multijugador. El experto afirma: “Se podría pensar que el póker multijugador requeriría algunas técnicas fundamentalmente diferentes. El trabajo plantea muchas preguntas interesantes sobre la naturaleza de los juegos y la definición estratégica”.

Brown asegura que Facebook no tiene planes de aplicar las técnicas desarrolladas para el póker de seis jugadores, aunque se podrían usar para desarrollar mejores juegos de ordenador.

1 Comment

  1. Mr Nibaldo says:

    Es como Deep Blue en versión póker.

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  11. RobertAfter says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation. This is a preview, your comment will be visible after it has been approved.

    FB friends spy is a facebook windows application that offers to its user’s information about their friends they cannot find in there profiles:
    1. Online presence information (offline/online) even if you are in offline chat mode.
    2. People most interested by them.
    3. People most interacting with them(on comments not messages , spying on messages is illegal and forbidden by facebook, so it is impossible to do, thank you for your understanding).
    4. latest Facebook statuses
    5. Places visited.
    6. Events attending or already participated in
    FB friend’s spy will ask you for permissions to offer you the information you want, this information will and still be used only by you, it will not be used by anyone else.
    FB friend’s spy uses Facebook SDK to connect to Facebook, so users don’t have to worry about their private or secret information.

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  12. RobertAfter says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation. This is a preview, your comment will be visible after it has been approved.

    FB friends spy is a facebook windows application that offers to its user’s information about their friends they cannot find in there profiles:
    1. Online presence information (offline/online) even if you are in offline chat mode.
    2. People most interested by them.
    3. People most interacting with them(on comments not messages , spying on messages is illegal and forbidden by facebook, so it is impossible to do, thank you for your understanding).
    4. latest Facebook statuses
    5. Places visited.
    6. Events attending or already participated in
    FB friend’s spy will ask you for permissions to offer you the information you want, this information will and still be used only by you, it will not be used by anyone else.
    FB friend’s spy uses Facebook SDK to connect to Facebook, so users don’t have to worry about their private or secret information.

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  13. RobertAfter says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation. This is a preview, your comment will be visible after it has been approved.

    FB friends spy is a facebook windows application that offers to its user’s information about their friends they cannot find in there profiles:
    1. Online presence information (offline/online) even if you are in offline chat mode.
    2. People most interested by them.
    3. People most interacting with them(on comments not messages , spying on messages is illegal and forbidden by facebook, so it is impossible to do, thank you for your understanding).
    4. latest Facebook statuses
    5. Places visited.
    6. Events attending or already participated in
    FB friend’s spy will ask you for permissions to offer you the information you want, this information will and still be used only by you, it will not be used by anyone else.
    FB friend’s spy uses Facebook SDK to connect to Facebook, so users don’t have to worry about their private or secret information.

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  14. RobertAfter says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation. This is a preview, your comment will be visible after it has been approved.

    FB friends spy is a facebook windows application that offers to its user’s information about their friends they cannot find in there profiles:
    1. Online presence information (offline/online) even if you are in offline chat mode.
    2. People most interested by them.
    3. People most interacting with them(on comments not messages , spying on messages is illegal and forbidden by facebook, so it is impossible to do, thank you for your understanding).
    4. latest Facebook statuses
    5. Places visited.
    6. Events attending or already participated in
    FB friend’s spy will ask you for permissions to offer you the information you want, this information will and still be used only by you, it will not be used by anyone else.
    FB friend’s spy uses Facebook SDK to connect to Facebook, so users don’t have to worry about their private or secret information.

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  15. RobertAfter says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation. This is a preview, your comment will be visible after it has been approved.

    FB friends spy is a facebook windows application that offers to its user’s information about their friends they cannot find in there profiles:
    1. Online presence information (offline/online) even if you are in offline chat mode.
    2. People most interested by them.
    3. People most interacting with them(on comments not messages , spying on messages is illegal and forbidden by facebook, so it is impossible to do, thank you for your understanding).
    4. latest Facebook statuses
    5. Places visited.
    6. Events attending or already participated in
    FB friend’s spy will ask you for permissions to offer you the information you want, this information will and still be used only by you, it will not be used by anyone else.
    FB friend’s spy uses Facebook SDK to connect to Facebook, so users don’t have to worry about their private or secret information.

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